SPEAKER WIRING

Discussion in 'Cabinets & Speakers' started by Guv'nor, Nov 2, 2006.

  1. Guv'nor

    Guv'nor New Member

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    The most common methods to wire up speakers are Series and Parallel.

    It is also quite common to wire Speakers in a Series/Parallel Combination.

    [​IMG]
    Single speaker

    Wiring up Speakers correctly to provide the best possible sound, requires some knowledge of Loading, Phase, and Impedance, while understanding Ohms Law will help you to connect your speakers properly.

    SERIES

    [​IMG]

    Adding Speakers in series increases the overall resistance of the circuit.

    Therefore the resistance of each Speaker is added together, For advanced installations with Multiple Speakers, Series Speaker wiring can be used to increase the resistance of the “equivalent” or “overall” resistance that the Amplifier sees. This allows the Amplifier to run cooler and more efficiently.

    Series Circuits are “voltage dividers”, and using Ohms Law, one sees the result as a decrease in amplified voltage audio signal to each Speaker. Since Series Circuits are “voltage dividers” each Speaker sees a percentage of the amplified output from the Amplifier. It is often assumed the Amplifier is producing less output, but it still produces the same output, because each Speaker only gets a percentage of the overall power.

    Formula: Znet = Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + .... + Zn

    Example:

    2 x 4 Ohm Speaker = 4 + 4 = 8 Ohm Load
    2 x 8 Ohm Speaker = 8 + 8 = 16 Ohm Load

    PARALLEL

    [​IMG]

    Adding Speakers in parallel decreases the overall resistance of the circuit

    Parallel Speaker Wiring combines all Speakers (+) positive Speaker leads together, and all (-) negative Speaker leads together.

    Adding additional Speakers is as easy, however, adding Speakers in Parallel causes the overall resistance of the circuit to drop, as resistance drops, the current must increase according to Ohms Law. So, each time a Speaker with the same resistance is added to the parallel circuit, the current draw on the amp increases. The circuitry of the amp must be able to handle this increase in current at the reduced resistance.

    Formula: Znet = 1 / (1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + ... + 1/Zn)

    Example:

    2 X 4 Ohm Speaker = 1 / (1/4 + 1/4 ) = 2 Ohm Load
    2 x 8 Ohm Speaker = 1 / (1/8 + 1/8 ) = 4 Ohm Load

    Note:
    If more than 2 Speakers are connected in Parallel, so long as they are all the same impedance then the net impedance of the load is equal to the impedance of the one Speaker divided by the total number of Speakers. For Example 3 8 Ohm Speakers in Parallel, the Impedance is 8/3 or 2.667 Ohms.

    A COMBINATION OF SERIES & PARALLEL

    [​IMG]

    In reality this is just two sets of Series Speakers wired in Parallel

    Formula: Znet = Znet1 + Znet2 + ... + Znetn; where Zneti = 1 / (1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + ... + 1/Zn)

    Example:

    4 X 8 Ohm Speaker = [1 / (1/8 + 1/8 )] + [1 / (1/8 + 1/8 )] = 4 + 4 = 8 Ohm Load

    WIRING A FULL STACK

    The amp usually has two speaker outputs (one for each cab)

    The output jacks are wired in parallel. It means Znet = 1 / (1/Z1 + 1/Z2 + ... + 1/Zn)

    Therefore having 2 cabs at 8Ohm the head will see 1 / (1/8 + 1/8 ) = 4 Ohm Load

    Enjoy!

    :)
     
  2. superleadfixer

    superleadfixer New Member

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    Also the serie/parallel combination in a 4x12 cab will have a draker sound and a little harcher, if your amp (set up) is too dark one way to help this out would do a Parallel/series connection instead, that will give a little bit cleaner and brighter sound......... ;)
     
  3. surfdog777

    surfdog777 Member

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    Correct me if this is wrong, I'm running both cabs in a full stack 16ohm mono, the head is set at 8 ohms....this is the correct setting, eh?
     
  4. Guv'nor

    Guv'nor New Member

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    1 / (1/16 + 1/16 ) = 1 / (0.0625 + 0.0625) = 1/0.125 = 8 Ohm Load

    You're ok.

    :)
     
  5. Jimib

    Jimib Member

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    I am looking at buying a cab that has 2 16ohm speakers in it, am i correct in saying my amp should be set at 8 ohms?

    Thanks
     
  6. Pearse

    Pearse New Member

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    I have a 1960A cab and looks like the speakers were refitted. there are 4 15 ohm speakers its not wired the same way as celestion would have said to wire it in their series diagram, its simpler like one speaker connected to another speaker and the two end wires are conected to the terminals. What do i choose, or do. It still works fine on the 16 omh output.
     
  7. KingKong

    KingKong New Member

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    Howdi all,

    I just signed up on the forums and am in need of assistance!

    I just bought a nearly new tsl 100 head, and I want to make sure my cabinet is wired for 16 ohm impedance. I'm attaching a pic. The lower terminal of the upper right speaker (as you look at the pic) is positive. I believe the top speaker terminals on the speakers on the left are positive (marked with red dot). The speakers are each 16 ohm. I believe the top two are wired together in series, the bottom two are wired together in series, and the upper pair is wired to the lower pair in parallel.

    If anyone could take a look at this and share an opinion I'd appreciate it!

    I'm thinking it's 16 ohms total impedance, but I'd like another opinion before I use the 16 ohm output from the tsl 100.

    Thanks!
    Kong
     

    Attached Files:

  8. Adwex

    Adwex New Member

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    I'm not sure.

    Welcome, Kong.

    It's tough to see in the pic exactly how the bottom pair is wired, but the way you describe everything is correct: top pair in series + to -, bottom pair in series + to -, with the two pairs wired together in parallel + to +, and - to -. Wired this way, if all the speakers are the same impedance individually, the total impedance of the 4 will be the same as the impedance of one, so use the 16 ohm output on the TSL.

    Interesting mix of speakers. I recognize the V30, but what are the others?

    Can you take a better pic detailing the wiring on the bottom pair? ...and exactly which terminals are used to connect the top and bottom pairs in parallel?

    Adam
     
  9. KingKong

    KingKong New Member

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    Thanks for the response and the welcome Adam.

    I bought this cabinet in about 1990, used and battered. One of the speakers was blown, and I replaced it with the V30. After a phone call to Marshall and some checking on the internet I dated the cabinet to the late 70's and was told it was a bass cabinet.

    It's pretty late here and I'm headed to bed, but tomorrow I'll open it up again and post some more detailed pictures of the wiring and speakers.

    Thanks again!

    -Kong
     
  10. KingKong

    KingKong New Member

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    OK, I took some more pics and here they are...

    The lower 2 are original G12H 30 Watts. Above are a G12C-30 and a G12 Vintage 30.

    I have no idea where these speakers rank in quality, I just know the thing sounds great. I'd love to hear anyone's assessment of this setup and if there's any reason these speakers should not be mixed!
     

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  11. Adwex

    Adwex New Member

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    Well the wiring looks correct. As far as ranking, I'd say those G12H's on the bottom rank pretty high on the quality scale. I have one new G12H Heritage, and it's a killer speaker (expensive too). The V30 is a V30...good, but not quite a G12H. I know nothing about the G12C, but from the looks of the small magnet, I'd guess that it's the weak link in your chain. I don't know, maybe it adds something the others don't have.

    Good heavy gauge speaker wire too.

    Post a sound clip if you can.
     
  12. kharvelan

    kharvelan New Member

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    since none of the images are showing, I was digging around to find a site that had good diagrams of both series and parallel wiring in both 2x12 and 4x12 configurations.

    I found this site which I think spells it out very easily exactly how to wire:

    Wiring a 4 X 12 Speaker cabinet

    Wiring a 2 X 12 Speaker cabinet

    hope that helps!
     
    Viking62 likes this.
  13. ironmaidencanada

    ironmaidencanada New Member

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    does anyone know how to hook up 4 cabs(8ohms each) to one amp head, all the cabs have outs and i have 4 8 and 16 ohm outputs on the head,any help would be greatly appreciated!!thanks
     
  14. Pturpin1

    Pturpin1 New Member

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    Need Help wiring my DSL 100 to 1 4x12 and 2 4x10 cabinets. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks
     
  15. Adwex

    Adwex New Member

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    I'm not sure.
    Are the cabs both the same impedance?
     
  16. Pturpin1

    Pturpin1 New Member

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    Yes They're both 8 ohms.

    Thanks
     
  17. Adwex

    Adwex New Member

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    Then it's simple...connect the cabs to the speaker jacks labelled something like "4 or 8 ohms only", and make sure the switch is set for 4 ohms.

    Since you are connecting 2 cabs, 8 ohms each, and the speaker jacks on the back of the amp are wired in parallel, the resultant impedance will be 1/2 the impedance of just one cab alone. That's why 2 cabs, at 8 ohms each will be the same as 1 cab at 4 ohms.
     
  18. Pturpin1

    Pturpin1 New Member

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    Thanks
    So the DSL should be set on 4 ohm.
    One Line should go to the 4x12 switched to 4 ohm.
    I now have two 4x10 8 ohm cabs. left to hook up.
    Should I use a Y Connector?
     
  19. Adwex

    Adwex New Member

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    Huh??!!

    NO !!!

    Wait, I'm sorry, I mis-read your original post, I didn't know you had 2 4x10 cabs.

    You cannot use all 3 cabs, you can only use 2 of them.
     
  20. Pturpin1

    Pturpin1 New Member

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    Bummer
    thanks for the info.
     

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